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When Is The Best Time To Spay Or Neuter My Bernese Mountain Dog?

September 15, 2021
September 15, 2021

It’s hard to know when to spay or neuter – or if you should at all. Here’s the best veterinary advice for your Bernese Mountain Dog.

So you’ve decided to spay or neuter your Bernese Mountain Dog– but when?

Often called getting your dog Fixed or Done (nomenclature that bugs me, because, fixed, implies broken, which is kinda mean!), the majority of dogs have this minor procedure performed upon them at a young age. Usually on a veterinary recommendation.

I know when Indie was little, I was told: “Six months, on the dot” – which is common advice given across America and Europe. If you ask the Internet (i.e. Facebook) usually recommendations say later and say a minimum of twelve months. 

But is that even right? Or is it founded in any sort of science? 

I know when Indie was little, I was told: “Six months, on the dot”

Ali Smith

With this conflicting information, how are you meant to know? Trust your vet? Do as your family has always done? Or trust the rando on the internet who appears to know it all. 

None of that seems to be a good idea when the potential consequences of these procedures are rumoured to be some of the scariest diseases and ailments a dog can face… Cancer, Hip or Elbow Dysplasia, and other rotten afflictions like pyometra. All of this is the result of removing the availability of hormones…

Luckily, research has come forward which is not just size specific, but breed-specific for 35 breeds! So, here we’re going to discuss the ideal times for spaying or neutering your dog.

First, let’s do a little housekeeping…

Bernese Mountain Dog playing ball, Spaying or neutering your dog is a big decision, it’s definitely best that they are responsibly bred
Bernese Mountain Dog playing ball, Vigorous exercise like this? Is really not recommended straight after a spay or neuter surgery instead try Post-Surgery Recovery: 12 Ideas For Keeping Your Dog Happy And Entertained.

What is Neutering?

This is the surgical castration of a male dog – usually by the removal of his testicles (sorry for making you cringe, gents!). This process means that your male dog cannot breed and that they are no longer producing hormones that are important to your dogs’ development – both emotionally and physically.

What is Spaying?

Similar to neutering, spaying is a form of surgical castration that removes the ovaries and most often the fallopian tubes along with it. This means your girl cannot breed, but it also means she is missing some critical hormones.

This process can be done in a ‘keyhole’ surgery at extra cost, though it is much better for recovery times.

So when is the best time for my Bernese Mountain Dog ?

Recommended age:

Male – After 2 years

Female – It’s your Choice

It’s interesting to see that with Bernese Mountain Dogs, there’s a large portion of the population that have been left entire and not spayed or neutered – 44% of males were left intact, and 36% of females – which I find really curious! I do wonder if there was a local breeding program that shifted the statistics – but this is a greatly interesting thing to see vs other breeds for whom I’ve never seen numbers this high – even with other giant breeds!

The sample size is quite small though, I’d love to see at least another 1,000 dogs involved.

Bernese Mountain Dog puppy, what a cutie! The age of your pup is really important as a factor in their future health as you consider spay or neuter surgery. If you need more info on the process, head over to the The Rebarkable Spay & Neuter Information Center!
Bernese Mountain Dog puppy, what a cutie! The age of your pup is really important as a factor in their future health as you consider spay or neuter surgery. If you need more info on the process, head over to The Rebarkable Spay & Neuter Information Center!

What Are The Risks?

Here’s a quick overview of what the study says the breed suffers from depending on when their surgical castration (Spay or Neuter) was performed. The aim of providing this information is about giving you all the information to make the best decision.

Disorders include – Cranial cruciate ligament tears or ruptures, Hip Dysplasia, Elbow Dysplasia 

Cancers include – LymphomaHemangiosarcomaMast Cell Tumours, Bone Cancer (Osteosarcoma),

GenderAge of
Surgical Castration
Disorder riskCancer Risk
MaleUnder 6 months23%7%
Male6 to 11 months24%10%
Male12 to 23 months23%0%
Male2 years to 8 years10%18%
MaleIntact4%9%
FemaleUnder 6 months38%18%
Female6 to 11 months11%4%
Female12 to 23 months0%0%
Female2 years to 8 years0%25%
FemaleIntact11%9%
Comes from Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence (Hart et al, 2020) where 235 Bernese Mountain Dogs were monitored over the course of 15 years to collect this data.
  • 5% of intact females developed Pyometra.
  • Urinary incontinence was not witnessed in either intact or late-spayed females.
  • Mamary cancer was not witnessed in either intact or late-spayed females.

This information is really interesting, but whilst it is interesting, it is also limited in the information it provides as the sample size is small.

This means that whilst we look at the female option of 12-23 months as really exciting (as both risks are 0%) this is only a sample of ten dogs… because the rates of castration vs non castration is so compatible, it means some of these categories lack a good bit of data.

That said? The flip side of that argument is really visible when we look at the boys… the boys show a quite distinct pattern (that’s pretty reliable) that they appear to benefit from remaining intact, with quite a large sample size as literally a quarter of the population monitored.

This gives this great weight, and if you do have a male bernese, it may be worth leaving them intact…

Are there other options?

If you’re doing what I am doing and looking at this research and reconsidering? It’s good to know that there are other options available.

Yes! On the presumption that these issues are caused by the lack of hormones (which is almost certainly the issue!) – there are a couple of ways to keep hormones but not facilitate breeding.

For Girls

Hysterectomy

This is the surgical removal of the uterus and only part of the fallopian tubes! The removal of these means that your girl is without the ability to breed – however – as she keeps her ovaries, hormones will still be produced and should mean that her risk levels are the same as an intact female – without the risk of pyometra! Though, there is a risk that the breeding instinct can remain? Which may be quite risky if a male tries to breed with her. 

For Boys

Vasectomy 

The tubes that run from the testes are called the vas deferens – these are what gets cut or removed in this instance – rendering your dog without the ability to impregnate a female. It leaves his hormones (and likely his desire to breed as a result) but also means that your dog should have the same risk factors as an entire male.

Chemical Castration

Did you know that surgical castration is not legal in Norway? Consequently what is common in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway is chemical castration which is an injection your dog will have to have every six months that drop the levels of testosterone by approximately half. Which is proven to be effective in temporary neuter for your dog. This means you can actually test what castration might do to your dog and is often how it’s used in the UK and America – but it’s also a fantastic way of not putting your dog through surgical procedures. 

before and after a spay or neuter surgery, socialisation is so important for your Bernese Mountain Dog.
Before and after a spay or neuter surgery, socialisation is so important for your Bernese Mountain Dog.

About the Study

The study “Assisting Decision-Making on Age of Neutering for 35 Breeds of Dogs: Associated Joint Disorders, Cancers, and Urinary Incontinence” (Hart BL, Hart LA, Thigpen AP, Willits NH) was released in July 2020 – it covers 35 different breeds – and a separate scientific paper for mixed breeds. The study followed a total of 15,414 dogs over 15 years of recording;

  1. The age of the dog when neutered or spayed
  2. Breed
  3. Disorders including: 
  4. Cancers including;

General Thoughts Across The Study

I find it incredibly interesting that there is breed-specific deviance. Prior to this, I was very much of the camp that it was simply a case of variations for dogs of different size brackets – but that appears not to be the case.

For example, a male Labrador (for whom I would have assumed were not dissimilar to Bernese Mountain Dog) actually have the best results when neutered at 6 months – yet the females prefer a slightly older age (When Should I Spay Or Neuter My Labrador is here by the way!).

So it’s really worth doing your research about these things.

As always? There’s not quite enough information to make a totally informed decision (yay for variables!) but, you can definitely get a good idea of it.

Other Considerations

It is worth noting that this study is a fantastic guideline – and one of the most solid pieces of research we’ve had – it doesn’t take into account many factors that I would imagine should be considered. The limitations I see are as follows;

  • Multiple conditions were not recorded if they fell in the same category,
  • Genetics were not considered,
  • Living conditions were not considered,
  • Food quality was not considered,
  • The exercise a dog had was not considered,
  • Body condition was not factored in because it had been studied previously and no strong correlation was found between body condition and joint issues.

The biggest thing I can say is, that whilst this is the scientific recommendation for when to spay or neuter your Bernese Mountain Dog do remember that at the end of the day? This is your decision. You are the only one who can make this decision. So, do your best – you’ve already found a phenomenal resource – just keep reading.

If you have any questions about spaying or neutering your Beagle, drop them in the comments below! Or check out the The Rebarkable Spay & Neuter Information Center! Where you’ll find the answers to all your spay & neuter questions.

Author, Ali Smith

Ali Smith is the Positive Puppy Expert, dog trainer and is the founder of Rebarkable. She is passionate about helping puppy parents get things right, right from the start. To help create a puppy capable of being a confident and adaptable family member and keep puppies out of shelters.

Ali has won multiple awards for her dog training, and has had her blog (this blog!) rated as 2021’s worlds’ best pet blog!

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